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PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

solvent, such as ether, chloroform, alcohol, amyl alcohol, £c.
The solvent is then distilled off, and the alkaloid, which remains,
is either crystallised or converted into a crystalline salt.

The alkaloids are strong bases, which turn red litmus blue, and
are very slightly soluble in water. They form soluble salts and
double salts with platinic and auric chlorides. The principal
general reagents for the alkaloids are :

1.  A solution of iodine in potassium iodide, which forms a
reddish-brown precipitate of the periodides.

2.  A solution of phosphomolybdic acid in nitric acid, which
gives yellow precipitates of different shades.

3.  A solution of potassium mercuric iodide, which forms white
or yellowish-white precipitates.

The constitution of quinine is not yet elucidated. Its relation-
ship to quinoline has long been known, since it gives this
substance on distillation with caustic potash (Gerhardt).

PREPARATION 114.

Phenylmethyltriazole Carboxylic Acid.-óThe mother
substance of this compound is a triazole, viz., pyrro-a/3-diazole,
which is one of four isomeric compounds :

NH                  NH                    NH                     NH

N/\N        N/^CH        N/\CH        HC/Vli

UC-ó^CH         N'JóLCI!          HC!óL'N-                N----L'N

Pyrro-act'-diaicole.    Pyrro-ajS-diazole.         Pyrro-a/3'-diuzole.        Pyrro-jS/J'-cliazule.

Pyrro-tt/3-diazole was first obtained by the oxidation of azimido-
toluene, which in turn was prepared by the action of nitrous
acid on 0-toluylenediamine,

CH3

Azimidotoluene.

HQ.OC\/

HOOC.C/XN

HOOC.C

Aximidobenzoic acid.           Triazoledicarboxj'lic acid

HC

iid

/\

Pyrro-a^-dia/jolc.